Thursday, January 5, 2012

This is All Tom Colicchio's Fault




I have to thank Tom Colicchio[1] for this post. If he hadn’t called me on a nasty comment on Twitter (once again, mea culpa Sr. Colicchio!) I wouldn’t be writing this right now. And that is definitely a GOOD thing.
            What was the beef about? Childhood hunger. To sum up, Tom Colicchio, Ming Tsai, Maria Hines, and Holly Smith got together to do a SNAP challenge – A delicious, healthy multicourse meal for 4 under 10 bucks. And I have to admit, they did a great job. Team Colicchio & Hines menu consisted of a carrot, apple & raisin salad with buttermilk dressing; a vegetable and beef stir fry stir-fry with brown rice; and for dessert, a panna cotta with oranges. Team Tsai & Smith weren’t too shabby either with frisee and avocado salad; chicken thighs with vegetable quinoa, and a yogurt-apple parfait for dessert.
            While I am happy to eat anything any of these chefs would serve me, a particular six-year old on the tasting panel was none too kind. Giving a serious thumb down to Team Tsai’s frisee salad and an upside-down smiley face to Team Colicchio’s carrot salad, the little critic had his work cut out for him.
            But this is not to suggest that it is the chefs’ fault. If anything, this failure in good taste (sorry kid) is a testament to the problems with childhood eating, poverty and nutrition in this nation – not the creative cooking skills of America’s finest chefs.
            Just in case you haven’t paid attention to the statistics, the only thing that seemed to go up in this year’s economy is food stamp usage. Since the beginning of the 2008 recession, food stamp usage has gone up by 66%,[2] to 15% of the US population receiving some kind of SNAP benefit. In order to qualify for SNAP benefits, a person has to be making less than 130% of the poverty rate in gross income, e.g. for a household of four, the total income must be less than $29,064 in gross income (or net income of $22,356) a year. 
            What do you get for your benefits? The maximum benefit for a family of four would be around $668 per month or $5.67 per person per day. That’s basically $1.85 cents per meal per person. No one is getting eating foie gras on food stamps – that’s for sure.[3]           
But in terms of poverty and food, not all calories are equal and part of the challenge with feeding people on food stamps is not just the paltry sum one gets for feeding oneself, but also with the nutritional quality of the food available to those who receive food stamp benefits. Spend three dollars on an 8.5 oz. bag of Cheetos, and you get 1,000 calories for two bucks.[4] Spend 1.50 on 1 pd of apples (about 4 medium) and you will get a 1,000 calories for $3.94.[5] Which is the better bargain? The Cheetos, if you are counting in terms of caloric weight. But in terms of nutritional quality, the Cheetos are a big fat negative.
    A recent study by the University of Washington bears this anecdotal evidence out. Scientists compared the price of junk food versus that of a healthier meal on a calorie-density basis. And guess what? Energy-dense foods, such as candy, pastries and chips, cost $1.76 per 1,000 calories versus $18.16 per low-density but nutritious foods, such as fresh vegetables, fruits and fish. 
            Furthermore, the study showed that low-calorie foods were more likely to increase in price, 19.5% during the 2-year study versus a 1.8% in the price of high-calorie foods.[6]
            Given the cost constraints that most SNAP recipients have, is it any wonder that SNAP usage, poverty and obesity go together? It’s far cheaper to eat a box of Twinkies than to eat a well-balanced healthy meal if you are trying to cut costs. Considering the high price of produce (we’re not talking Whole Paycheck here), the costs of a nutritious meal become not only out of reach for those in poverty – the working poor also suffer. In short – healthy and fresh fruit are becoming the property of the 1%.
            Furthermore, as many of those in poverty or low-income live in “food deserts”,[7] the access to healthy food is even more difficult to come by. While food deserts may have convenience & liquor stores, since when did the local 7-11 stock enough healthy and affordable food for a meal?  According to the US Census, 2.2% (or 2.3 million) of US households lived more than a mile from a supermarket and did not own a car. As cities and states everywhere are cutting public transportation funding, the seemingly mundane task of grocery shopping has become a costly & timely nightmare for those with little economic resources.
            What’s the solution? Well, beyond the usual, “It’s the economy, stupid” generalisms, there are some concrete policy suggestions for helping out families:

1.     Change the incentive structure, change the behavior. Changing the incentive structure for SNAP benefits would encourage the buying habits of non-processed foods. This mean could be in the form of a 50% rebate on fresh fruits, vegetables, meats and whole grains. This could also mean a restriction on soda, candy and junk foods. And USDA – I know what you’re thinking. It’s too cumbersome. That’s BS. You can’t buy cigarettes and booze with SNAP – it’s would easy enough to do the same with junk food.
2.     If you build it, they will come. Get fresh vegetables into food deserts via farmers’ markets. This is really a win-win for everyone. Farmers receive a larger profit margin by selling in farmers’ markets. People pay usually less than supermarket prices for fresh food. Everyone benefits. Already, some farmers’ markets have experimented with accepting SNAP benefits. New York City has not only accepted benefits, but also added a bonus to amplify the purchasing power of foods bought at local greenmarkets via the USDA’s Healthy Bucks program (you get an extra $2 for every $5 you spend at farmers’ markets). Even in Harlem![8] And farmers’ markets, unlike supermarkets, can cater to a wide range of ethnic and regional favorites, such as mustard greens and specialty chili peppers.  Currently, only .1% of SNAP benefits are redeemed at greenmarkets. Imagine the possibilities….
3.     If you can’t buy it, grow it. Urban farming has been usually associated with Brooklyn hipsters, but those hipsters are onto something. Cities such as Detroit are using abandoned land as sites for urban farms. Other communities are using odd spaces, such as the roof of a bowling alley, to build greenhouses. And that picky kid who didn’t like Tom’s salad? I bet he’d eat it if he grew it himself.
4.     Bring back home economics. Yeah, home-ec gets a bad rap for burnt French toast, but without those skills, many do not even the knowledge of how to cook nutritious meals or quick meals. If you can’t cook, no amount of economic or structural changes will make a difference. Get everyone back in the kitchen – mom, dad, kids – basically anyone you can find.

So thanks Tom for chewing me out. Couldn’t have written this without your help. And I promise to stay on your good side….
** Team Colicchio and Team Tsai's recipes are below the footnotes. Courtesy of Partnership for A Healthy America.

[1] To those who don’t know Tom Colicchio, he is the man behind the highly reviewed Craft empire of restaurants (Craft, CraftSteak, Colicchio & Sons, riverpark and Craftwich) in New York City. And when he’s not running the restaurants, he’s busy being a judge on Bravo’s Top Chef. Yes, he’s famous (and I’m not).
[2] USDA provides figures for food stamp usage. In 2008, 27.8 million people were using Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (“SNAP” a.k.a. food stamps). By 2011, that number reached 46 million.
[3] The full set of benefits and income thresholds for SNAP can be found at the USDA’s web site: http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/applicant_recipients/eligibility.htm
[4] All the nutritional information for a bag of regular Cheetos (not the Flaming Hot kind, Puffs, or the Baked varieties) comes from the Frito Lay website.
[5] Nutritional information for a medium apple (190g) was taken from the USDA nutritional labels. Prices for apples vary across the nation, but they generally go from a buck to 3 bucks per pound.
[6] Monsivais et al. Lower-Energy-Density Diets Are Associated with Higher Monetary Costs per Kilocalorie and Are Consumed by Women of Higher Socioeconomic Status. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 2009; 109 (5): 814
[7] Food deserts are locations that are lack access to fresh, affordable and nutritious food. While definitions vary, most geographers define food deserts as places that do not have supermarkets or grocery stores within a one mile radius of their given household. The USDA has an excellent graphic of how low-income areas intersect with food desserts: http://www.ers.usda.gov/amberwaves/march10/features/FoodDeserts.htm - box1
[8] Harlem’s Farmers Market just opened in 2010 and it’s been a rousing success. http://marcussamuelsson.com/news/have-you-been-to-harlem’s-farmers-market
Partnership  for  a  Healthier  America  Recipes  
Tom    Colicchio    and    Maria    Hines  
    
Main    Dish:  Beef  &  Vegetable  Stir  Fry  with  Brown    Rice  
Side  Dish:  Shredded  Carrot,  Apple  &  Raisin  Salad  with  Buttermilk  Dressing  
Dessert:  Buttermilk  Panna  Cotta  with  Orange  Segments     
    
Shredded  Carrot,  Apple  &  Raisin  Salad  with  Buttermilk  Dressing  
    
1     bag    whole    carrots,    peeled    and    shredded  
½     cup  raisins,  soaked    in  hot  water  
2     apples,    peeled    and    shredded  
½  cup  buttermilk  
2     tbsp  cider    vinegar    Salt    and    pepper  
    
Peel   carrots and apples and shred  with  a  box  grater. Soak  raisins  in  a  small  amount of hot water and set  aside. Slowly  whisk  the  buttermilk  into  the  cider  vinegar  to emulsify  and  season  with  salt  and pepper.  Right  before  serving,  remove  the  raisins  from    the  water  and  add  to  the  shredded carrots and  apples. Toss with the vinaigrette,    season   with    salt   and   pepper   and    serve.    
    
Beef  Stir  Fry  
Yields:    6    people      
    
1.5    pound    beef    round,    slice   thin  
1     c.    broccoli    florets,   blanched  
1     c.    snow   peas  
1  c.  button  mushrooms.    sliced   thin  
hot  sesame  oil  
regular  sesame  oil  
¼     c.    soy    sauce  
1     TB.    oyster    sauce  
1  TB.  fresh  lime  
½     c.    green    onion,    sliced    thin  
1/2    c.   peanuts  
1     c.    onion,    sliced    thin  
1     TB  garlic,  minced  
1/2  c.    cilantro,   chopped  
3     c.    brown    rice  
    
Method:  
Heat  hot  sesame  oil  and  regular  sesame  oil  in  a    pan,   then    sauté  all    ingredients
together  (except    for  rice).  Cook  rice    in  water.  3    c.  rice    and    3   1/4    c.  water.    Serve    beef    stir  fry    over  rice.  
    
Panna  Cotta  with  Orange  Segments  
1     packet  of    sugar    free    orange    Jello  
½     cup  water  
1  ½  cups  buttermilk         Orange  segments  
    
Boil    water,  pour  into  bowl  with  Jello  packet,  whisk  for  2  minutes  or  until  completely  dissolved.      Add  buttermilk  and  stir  until  combined.  Pour  into desired    container and let set uncovered  in refrigerator  for  30-­45  minutes until  set.  Serve  with  orange  segments.     

PHA’s Building a Healthier Future Summit
Challenge Menu 

Holly Smith & Ming Tsai

Menu
Main Dish: Braised Chicken Thighs with Herb and
Vegetable Quinoa

Frisée and Avocado Salad

Dessert: Non-Fat Greek Yogurt Parfait with Warm
Cinnamon Apples and Cashews


Chicken Thighs with Herb and Vegetable Quinoa
8 -10 servings

6 chicken thighs -boneless skinless
1 onion
3-4 cloves garlic
4 sprigs thyme or 1T dried
1 T extra virgin olive oil
½ cup sherry vinegar
¼ cup crushed tomato
2 cups chicken stock - no salt added * as needed
Kosher salt –to taste
Black Pepper-to taste
1T butter (*optional)
2 teaspoons flour (*optional)

Heat a large pan over medium high heat.  Chop
garlic and onions and set aside. Cut chicken into
small pieces.  Season with Kosher salt and black
pepper, lightly dust with flour.  Add oil to heated
pan then carefully add chicken.  As pieces brown,
make room in pan for onions and garlic.  Stir often
to prevent burning 2 minutes.  Deglaze with wine. 
Add stock, ½ of sherry vinegar and tomato.  Bring to
a simmer and cover.  After 10 minutes uncover and
add butter, reduce until a nicely bound sauce
adding additional vinegar as needed/desired. 
Serve on top of quinoa.

Quinoa
1 1/2 cups quinoa raw
2 bulbs fennel – chop small
3 cloves garlic-chopped fine
6 leaves mint - chopped
Chopped parsley
2 zucchini- diced small
1 carrot-diced small
3T extra virgin olive oil
Kosher salt
Cayenne

Follow instructions for quinoa – while it is cooking,
chop vegetables and garlic.  In Saute pan heat
olive oil, add fennel. Toss and Season with kosher
salt.  Once lightly colored and softening- 3 minutes
add garlic, and carrot to pan and sauté another
minute to just wilt the carrot.  Remove to a bowl
and add herbs, zucchini and pinch of cayenne
pepper.  When quinoa is ready (12-14 minutes
typically) toss with the seasoned vegetables.  Taste
and adjust seasoning as desired.

Frisée and Avocado Salad
 
1 large shallot, minced
1 Tablespoon Dijon or hot mustard
1 Tablespoon soy sauce
1/4 cup rice vinegar or fresh lemon juice
1/2 cup EVOO
2 heads frisée, washed, cored and torn into pieces
1 avocado, peeled and diced
 
Combine shallot, mustard, soy sauce and vinegar in
large bowl.  Gradually pour olive oil in a steady
stream while whisking constantly to emulsify. Place
frisée and avocado in large mixing bowl and add
enough dressing to coat.  Toss well.  Season with salt
& pepper, to taste.

Non-Fat Greek Yogurt Parfait with Warm Cinnamon
Apples and Cashews
1tb butter 
3 large apples, granny or Fiji, cored and diced
(leave skin on)
Pinch cinnamon 
1/2 cup Craisins (R) 
1/2 cup apple juice 
4 cups non-fat Greek yogurt
1/2 cup toasted cashews

In pan melt butter, sauté apples until golden, 3 - 5
minutes.  Add cinnamon and Craisins (R).  Continue
to cook until apples are caramelized.  Add apple
juice to deglaze and cook until liquid reduced by
1/4. Serve with yogurt and sprinkle with toasted
cashews.
 




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